No making up please, unless federal prison is a part of our career plan. B-1 in lieu of H-1 is uncertain, but you can keep trying extensions. If the new law for comprehensive immigration reform passes, things could change drastically.
U.S. Customs and Border Patrol (CBP) indicates that a Mexican truck driver whose B-1 visa has been cancelled by CBP for a point-to-point violation will need to discuss the issue of the cancellation with the U.S. Consulate in Mexico.
You can go to a third country, but your entry back into USA can be declined if CBP believes you are spending more time in USA than you should. Typically, B visas are for brief visits (may be six months or less in a 12-24 month period).
Tourist visa seems to be appropriate. Times vary by consulate and are usually very short -- often visa is issued the same day an application is made. You can also get an appointment for emergent reasons.
I believe you can take training on B-2 as long as your main purpose of stay in USA is is still medical treatment. Getting paid may be a bad idea.
A B-1 visa is appropriate for medical treatment.
You will need a consultation with a lawyer. It appears you were formally denied admission and excluded from entering USA. The one-month detention sounds strange. Anyhow, get a lawyer, this is not a simple matter.